Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Colonialism and Imperialism in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay

 Joseph Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness, portrays a life changing excursion that the hero, Marlow, encounters in the African Congo.â The story investigates the recorded time of imperialism in Africa to represent Marlow's struggles.â Marlow, as different Europeans of his time, is raised to accept certain things about expansionism, yet his perspectives change as he encounters expansionism direct. This exposition will investigate Marlow's perspective on expansionism, which is formed through his encounters and furthermore from his connection to Kurtz.â Marlow's comprehension of Kurtz's encounters show him the impacts imperialism can have on a man's soul.â In Europe, expansionism was stressed just like an extraordinary and honorable cause.â It was viewed as, the white keeps an eye on crucial assistance cultivate and improve a savage race.â At the start of the book, Marlow discusses the Roman success of Britain and the comparative circumstance to that of Africa.â The Romans felt the British individuals were savage and looked down on them since they accepted that they had accomplished more.â I trust Marlow attracted this correlation with incidentally show that the Europeans are not as better as they might suspect and than exhibit that they t... ...99. Print. Goonetilleke, D.C.R.A. Heart of Darkness: Overview. Literature Resources from Gale. Hurricane, 1994. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.â Hillman, James. Notes on White Supremacy: Essaying an Archetypal Account of Historical Events, Spring (1986): 29-57. Loe, Thomas. Heart of Darkness: Overview. Literature Resources from Gale. Hurricane, 1991. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. McLynn, Frank. Hearts of Darkness: The European Exploration of Africa. New York: Carol and Gey, 1992. Patrick Brantlinger, ?Heart of Darkness: Anti-Imperialism, Racism, or Impressionism?? Analysis (Fall, 1985) 364.â â

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Half Brothers by Elizabeth Gaskell Essay Example For Students

The Half Brothers by Elizabeth Gaskell Essay To make the substance powerful and to continue the consideration of the peruser, creators of short stories need to focus on structure, environment, social foundation and language, remark in detail in transit your consideration is supported by the Half Brothers by Elizabeth Gaskell. During the mechanical upheaval, short stories turned out to be exceptionally famous and The Half Brothers is a case of a short story. Be that as it may, it doesn't generally fit in with the standard attributes of a short story. The Half Brothers is the narrative of two relatives that are estranged from one another after their mom kicks the bucket. Numerous years after the fact, the more youthful siblings life is spared by his more established stepbrother (Gregory), who passes on attempting to spare his more youthful siblings life. We will compose a custom article on The Half Brothers by Elizabeth Gaskell explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now Elizabeth Gaskell utilizes structure a ton to keep up the perusers consideration. The Half Brothers has a long and nitty gritty foundation that encourages the peruser to comprehend and start to think about the characters and their lives up until now, in this manner continuing their consideration. This is surprising for a short story as it is conventional for short stories to have no foundation or scene settings. A further result of this point by point foundation is that Gaskells characters are created. This is significant in delaying the perusers consideration as in any case the peruser would not be keen on the primary peak of the story which is the point at which the Gregory kicks the bucket. The Half Brothers has one primary peak, when Gregory bites the dust yet Gaskell includes four other, littler peaks to the story. These are; when Gregorys father bites the dust, when Gregorys sister passes on, when Gregorys mum kicks the bucket and when William Preston bites the dust toward the end. These peaks are significant in keeping up the perusers consideration as the peaks help to make a feeling of looming fate. As the story is set over so long range (twenty years), the peaks are situated at visit interims with the goal that the perusers consideration is kept up all through the whole story. The title of this story, The Half siblings, doesn't get applicable until the second passage where it says:â and appeared to look on us two minimal relatives  Up until that point, the peruser is uncertain of the significance between the title and the story. Gaskell utilizes this expression to remind us what the story is in reality about and this strengthens the perusers consideration, as it is an indication that the headliner of the story is drawing nearer. Gaskell utilizes air to support the perusers consideration by causing the storyteller to portray what is occurring and his feelings in detail. This assists with making air by permitting the peruser to envision that they also are a piece of the scene. A case of this is the scene on the fells, not long before Gregory shows up when the storyteller depicts his feelings:â In an ache of desolation, brought about by such recognition ofâ my short life I got together my quality and calledâ out again, a long, despondent, crying cry, toâ which I had no desire for acquiring any answer, saveâ from the echoes around, dulled as the sound may beâ by the thickened air. This sentence makes environment utilizing innovative portrayals, Gaskell makes an extraordinary vibe of sadness, which saves the perusers consideration. The manner by which the fells are portrayed makes an alarming, risky air, the exemplification of the environmental factors builds this climate.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Educational Goals and Philosophies Essay -- Education Teaching Philoso

Instructive Goals and Philosophies For as far back as seven years, I have had a similar dream - to some time or another be a secondary school math educator. I am at last on my approach to transforming that fantasy into a reality. En route, I am learning a great deal of things and shaping various suppositions. One of the principle territories in which I am shaping new convictions is comparable to what strategies I will use in showing my class and what parts of what ways of thinking I will utilize. Most importantly, be that as it may, I should arrive at where I have a class to instruct. How am I going to arrive at my objective of turning into an instructor? I trust I am making the most significant stride right currently by going to a decent school where I am increasing further information in numerous zones, particularly math and instruction, just as increasing functional involvement with the state funded educational system. Right now, it isn't my arrangement to go to graduate school. Since I set aside some additional effort to acquire an Associate of Arts in Bible, I will have just been in school for a long time when I graduate, and I am anxious to get out there and begin educating now. Math educators are hard to find at the present time, and in the event that I am ready to get a decent showing position with just a Bachelor of Science, I would prefer to do that than proceed with further tutoring. I realize that educators with their Master’s Degree get more cash-flow, however I am not stressed over cash. In the event that I were, I would not turn into an instr uctor. I need to instruct on the grounds that I love math, I love to have the option to support others, and I love youngsters. I understand that on the off chance that I choose to encourage school level math sometime in the future, I should go to graduate school, however I will cross that connect when I come to it in the event that I ever do. Right now, it is only my craving to show secondary school. When I am instructing in a secondary school sometime in the future, what ways of thinking will be apparent in my study hall? What strategies will I use to arrive at my understudies? In my current instruction, I am starting to ponder these issues. From what I have perused and taken in and from contrasting different ways of thinking and one another, I have come to understand that I am a solid essentialist, and I likewise observe numerous solid focuses in progressivism and behaviorism. Essentialism, made mainstream by William Bagley in the 1930’s, is the type of instruction the majority of us know well from our tutoring encounters. It has additionally been known as the â€Å"... that depends on behaviorist standards. Understudies work at their own pace to arrive at a specific objective. At the point when they pass that stage, they proceed onward to the following one; else, they rehash it until they can arrive at the goal. Authority adapting frequently gives prizes or support. Modified learning is a sort of authority learning in which understudies work with an intuitive program on a PC. The material is broken into little parts, and the PC gives prompt criticism to the student’s answers. Understudies can work at a speed agreeable for them. I need to be the most ideal instructor I can be. I need to discuss well with my understudies, and I need to have the option to help them both now while they are in school and furnish them with apparatuses they will utilize when they are done with school. So as to be a decent instructor, I will utilize different techniques and thoughts from the methods of reasoning of essentialism, progressivism, and behaviorism. I need to be open and ready to attempt new things and to consistently remember the explanation I turned into an instructor †to enable my understudies to learn math, in the manner in which I can. At the point when everything is said and done, I need my evaluation as an educator to be a â€Å"A.†

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Essay Topics on Road Safety

Essay Topics on Road SafetyWith the importance of road safety in today's society, the essay topics on road safety will always be there. Though it is not a part of the original exam requirements, it is one that students have to master. In order to pass, the essays have to be concise and contain good points about road safety and how it can contribute to better public safety.The topics on road safety cover two parts. The first part focuses on the responsibilities of motorists, from the novice to the most experienced driver. The second part focuses on ways to improve road safety and issues with traffic law enforcement. It also contains a case study on how traffic law enforcement in Washington, DC is handled. Since road safety is so important, the subject could also include tips for other road users like pedestrians, cyclists, and automobile drivers.The English essay topics on road safety are also known as areas of study for driving instructors. For the student, the essay is a way to demo nstrate how they can be successful at the road and riding school and how the instructor can learn from them. The course can also be used to build the skills of driving, and has several subjects that can be studied in depth.Other classes in the country also offer online courses on this subject, and there are even online sections that include the essay topic. Students who take these online courses may use their essays as additional material to support their grades.Essay topics for driving safety are not required by law, but there are several different ways to prepare one. They can include research on the subject or they can include a case study of a friend or family member that had been in an accident. It is also possible to use an article or newspaper column written about road safety and related topics.The essay topics on road safety do not usually come in as an assignment to students, although they do make up the bulk of the grade. It is a matter of personal choice as to whether one should include these in their grade. Students must also write their own personal responses to the essay topics, in an attempt to make their essay interesting and original.All students should try to use the essay topics as much as possible when it comes to the final grades. Essay topics are great way to prove one's ability, especially if one chooses the appropriate one. It can show the student how they can use writing to communicate and gain the trust of other students.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Role of the International Criminal Court and United Nations in Sudan - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2523 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Analytical essay Level High school Did you like this example? ___________________________________________________ WRITTEN SUBMISSION ON THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT AND UNITED NATIONS IN SUDAN __________________________________________________ Background The Darfur war is a war conducted by the Sudanese Government against the rebel groups in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The war began in the year 2003 when rebel groups like the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Sudan Liberation Armyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and Justice Equality Movement started a fight against the Sudanese government as it was accused of oppressing the non-Arab population in the Darfur region. The government in reprisal carried out ethnic cleansing of the non-Arab population in Darfur with the help of Arab militants like Janjaweed and mainly targeted the African tribes of the region in order to expel the rebellions from the region. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Role of the International Criminal Court and United Nations in Sudan" essay for you Create order This ethnic cleansing of the African tribe by the Sudanese government resulted in the killing of thousands of civilians and uprooted million others.[1] The matter was first investigated by the United States who termed the crimes committed as genocide and consequently a commission was appointed by the United Nations Secretary General Koffi Annan to enquire into the crimes committed in the Darfur region. The commission in its report submitted to the UN Security Council said that serious level of war crimes and humanity crimes have been committed in Darfur but did not directly accused the Sudanese Government of the crimes committed and requested further enquiry by handing over the case to the International Criminal Court. The Security Council passed a resolution to refer the matter to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court by a vote of 11 in favour, none against with 4 abstentions and decided that the Government of Sudan and other parties involved should co-operate fully wit h the ICC.[2] This enquiry also resulted in the accusation of the Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir on the counts of committing genocide and humanity crimes. Power of ICC to investigate the matter The Darfur Situation was referred to the ICC by the Security Council on 31st March, 2005. This was the first ever matter referred by the Security Council to the ICC. Looking at the situation in Darfur, the international community came out and raised their concerns with respect to the war crimes being committed by the Government against the non-Arab population. The matter was subsequently taken up by the United Nations by virtue of the power given to it under Article 39 of the UN Charter. Article 39 of the Charter states that:- à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Article 39 The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 4 2, to maintain or restore international peace and security.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [3] So by exercising its power the United Nations appointed a Commission to look into the matter who after conducting due enquiry submitted the report to the UN Security Council. Further the Security Council referred the matter to the International Criminal Court looking at the grave offences involved in the matter. Further, Article 5 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 1998 gives jurisdiction to the ICC with regards to the serious crimes concerning the international community at large. It gives a number of crimes such as Genocide, Crimes against humanity, War crimes, etc with regards to which the Court shall exercise its jurisdiction.[4] As report submitted by the commission appointed by the United Nations there was clear indication of crimes such as Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes etc which gives ICC clear jurisdiction in the matter as per Article 5 of the Rome Statut e, 1998. But the main issue that was involved with regards to the involvement of the ICC was that as Sudan was not a member party of the Rome Statue of 1998 which established the International Criminal Court, was the matter within the jurisdiction of the ICC? The answer to this question lies in Article 13 (b) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 1998 which states that with regards to a crime mentioned in article 5, the Court can exercise its jurisdiction if the crime committed is referred to the ICC prosecutor by the UN Security Council as per the provisions of Chapter VII of the UN Charter. [5] So the matter was referred to the ICC by the Security Council while exercising its power under Article 39 (Chapter VII) of the UN Charter as the situation in Darfur constituted threat to the international peace and security as the non-Arab population was targeted in millions and their existence was in danger as the Government itself along with other militants was co nducting such ethnic cleansing. Where jurisdiction in a case is granted to the ICC by the reference made by the Security Council, the jurisdiction is valid and strong and the consent of the state is not of importance in such a case. [6] Current Situation In, March 2009, International Criminal Court issued the warrants against the Sudanese President, Omar Al-Bashir, Ministers Ahmed Harun and Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein, militia leader Ali Kushayb for committing crimes such as genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes[7] by exercising its power of issuing warrants under Article 58 of the Rome Statute, 1998. As reported by the Chief Prosecutor of ICC Fatou Bensouda to the UN Security Council crimes are still being committed against the non-Arab population in Darfur and no arrests were made with regards to that. The reaction of the Sudanese Government was not promising when it comes to punishing the accused person. The ICC and the UN continuously asked for the governme ntà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s help in arresting the accused but no actions have been taken up by the Sudan Government. As Sudan continuously failed to co-operate with the ICC by refusing to execute the arrests of the accused and to indulge into any kind of conversation with the authorities, the ICC on 9th March 2015 decided to inform the UN Security Council about the failure of the Sudanese Government in arresting and surrendering the accused person and asked them to take the measures as it deem fit. So the matter has again been referred to the UN Security Council and has been left on its discretion to take the necessary actions as it may deem fit.[8] Prosecuting the Head of the State and other State officials As per Customary International law, a head of state cannot be prosecuted. But Article 27 of the Rome Statute, 1998 was introduced purposely to bring them under the ambit of international criminal justice.[9] As per the Rome Statute of 1998, a head of the State just like an y other person can be prosecuted. A normal person other than head of a State may be prosecuted under Article 25 of the Statute which talks about Individual criminal responsibility and says that the ICC will have jurisdiction over all the persons committing crime within its jurisdiction.[10] So Article 25 gives the Court jurisdiction to prosecute any person who has committed any crime within the Courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s jurisdiction. The language of Article 25 suggests that the Court will have jurisdiction with regards to any person who is signatory of the Rome Statute of 1998. Generally, the Courtà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s jurisdiction is also only limited to its member state, though Sudan is not a member party to the Rome Statute of 1998 but still ICC can validly claim the jurisdiction on any person belonging to Sudan as the matter was specifically referred to the ICC by the UN Security Council by virtue of its power under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. So even though Sudan was a non-s tate party, ICC can prosecute any person belonging to Sudan and hence the Ministers Ahmed Harun and Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein and the militia leader Ali Kushayb can be charged and prosecuted by the ICC. But the Sudanese President Omar-Al Bashir is not subjected to Article 25 of the Rome Statute of 1998. Being the head of the State he cannot be prosecuted just like other normal persons and the other ministers. For this, Article 27 was introduced in the Rome Statute of 1998, which states as: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Article 27 Irrelevance of official capacity 1. This Statute shall apply equally to all persons without any distinction based on official capacity. In particular, official capacity as a Head of State or Government, a member of a Government or parliament, an elected representative or a government official shall in no case exempt a person from criminal responsibility under this Statute, nor shall it, in and of itself, constitute a ground for reduction of sentence. 2. I mmunities or special procedural rules which may attach to the official capacity of a person, whether under national or international law, shall not bar the Court from exercising its jurisdiction over such a person.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [11] As clearly pointed out by Article 27(1) that no distinction shall be made between any person and that the Statute shall apply equally to everyone irrespective of the positions held by them. This proposition suggests the idea that under the International criminal law no person can be exempted of the sins that he have committed merely on the ground that he is a head of the state. Everyone stands at the same footing under the International criminal justice system. Further, Article 27(2) puts the provision of this Statute above other National or International law which provides immunity to the head of the state on the basis of his official capacity. It says that the Court will have jurisdiction over that person irrespective of the immunities granted t o him under other laws. So by reading Article 25 and 27 of the Rome Statute, Omar-Al Bashir along with the accused ministers can be charged comprehensively. But now the dispute that arises is with regards to Article 98(1) of the Rome Statute, which states: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Article 98 Cooperation with respect to waiver of immunity and consent to surrender 1. The Court may not proceed with a request for surrender or assistance which would require the requested State to act inconsistently with its obligations under international law with respect to the State or diplomatic immunity of a person or property of a third State, unless the Court can first obtain the cooperation of that third State for the waiver of the immunity.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [12] So there seems to be a clear contradiction between Article 27 and Article 98(1) of the Rome Statute. Article 98(1) provides that the state can avoid compliance with regards to surrender or assistance with respect to diplomatic immunity of a person. As per Article 27 official immunities are not to be considered by the Courts, than why such immunities should be considered by the Court in case of request made by the State with regards to surrender or assistance? If all the states starts requesting to avoid compliance with the surrender order only because the person sought for enjoys official immunity and the Court considers such request and does not proceed than that in itself would render the purpose of Article 27 meaningless.[13] But as no such requests were made by Sudan as it did not indulge into any kind of talks with the ICC authorities, the arrest of Omar-Al Bashir along with the Ministers and other persons can be made by the virtue of Article 25 and Article 27 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 1998. Conclusion Suggestion The war crimes committed in Darfur by the government of Sudan against the non-Arab population in the Darfur region of Sudan has attracted the eyes of the Int ernational community at large. The UN Security Council referred the matter to the ICC after passing a resolution under the provisions of the Chapter VII of the UN Charter. Sudan though not a signatory to the Rome Statute of 1998 establishing the International Criminal Court, is still obliged by the ICC because of Article 13(2) of the Rome Statute as the case was referred by the UN Security Council. Subsequently summons was also issued against the Sudanese President Omar-Al Bashir along with others but no actions were taken by Sudan. As Sudan failed in complying with the directions issued by International Criminal Court and has not surrendered the accused to the custody of the ICC, the ICC has again referred the matter back to the United Nations Security Council, now it is upto the Security Council to take the measures under the International law. The possible measures that can be taken up by the Security Council include sanctions that may be imposed internationally on Sudan. Sanctio ns though are not a perfect tool of action but it is the only viable option available right now as military intervention in Sudan should not be promoted now as it is too late for such action as it should have been taken in the first place itself when the war crimes and genocide was committed in Sudan way back in the year 2005. Sanctions such as financial, trade, travel etc may be imposed on Sudan as it is necessary to put some pressure on the country so that as the situation gets worse for Sudan in the International arena, it considers complying with the directions of ICC and UN Security Council. [1] Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur to the United Nations Secretary-General Browsed on 3rd April, 2015 [2] Security Council refers the situation in Darfur to ICC Browsed on 3rd April, 2015 [3] Charter of the United Nations, Article 39 Browsed on 4th April, 2015 [4] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 5 Browsed on 4th April, 2015 [5] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 13 Browsed on 5th April, 2015 [6] Heyder Corrina, The U.N. Security Councils Referral of the Crimes in Darfur to the International Criminal Court in Light of U.S. Oppo sition to the Court: Implications for the International Criminal Courts Functions and Status; Berkeley Journal of International Law, Volume 24, Issue 2, 2006 Browsed on 6th April, 2015 [7] Browsed on 5th April ,2015 [8] Browsed on 6th April, 2015 [9] Wardle Phillip, The Survival of Head of State Immunity at the International Criminal Court, Australian International law Journal Browsed on 6th April, 2015 [10] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 25(2) Browsed on 7th April, 2015 [11] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 27 Browsed on 7th April, 2015 [12] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 98(1) Browsed on 7th April, 2015 [13] Wardle Phillip, The Survival of Head of State Immunity at the International Criminal Court, Australian International law Journal Browsed on 8th April, 2015

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Summary Of Great Expectations - 1612 Words

Kaylee-Anna Jayaweera Mr. DiGiulio Honors Freshmen English 7 November 2014 Life by Chance, Gentleman by Choice In this novel, Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, Pip is a common boy whose expectations arise once he encounters an immensely â€Å"rich and grim lady† (Dickens 56) who appears as a â€Å"wax-work and skeleton seem(ing) to have dark eyes that only moved (to) look at (Pip)† (57). This first simple encounter sparks a collection of decisions and manipulations that kickoff the plot to the story. This all pulls to the theme that life is a pure game of chance –just as cards are to the game of poker - it is how you take advantage of those opportunities that define your character. This benefit of chance can be seen through the view of Pip and Miss Havisham due to their differences in social rising, ambitions, respect for the world around them, and their actions towards each other. Pips social rising is one of great luck and coincidence, but can be most credited to the hard work of the one and only Abel Magwitch (Provis/Mr.Campbell). This can be seen when Pip encounters Magwitch for the second time and realizes he is his benefactor, Magwitch states, â€Å"As I giv you to understand just now, I m famous for it. It was the money left me, and the gains of the first few year wot I sent home to Mr. Jaggers—all for you—when he first come arter you, agreeable to my letter (345). This identifies the fact that Magwitch has spent his whole life earning money for Pip so he may prosper inShow MoreRelatedSummary Of Great Expectations Notes 1905 Words   |  8 PagesJoseph Slovick Mr. Alsedek 535-02 1 February 2016 Great Expectations Notes Chapters 1-3: The narrator introduces himself as Philip Pirrip, or ‘Pip’ for short; the man in question effectively gave himself this name when he could not pronounce his real name as an infant, managing only Pip. 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Annie had said that when she was in school she thought that outside of the clinical setting she would mostly be doing â€Å"head to toe assessments and giving medications.† I completelyRead MoreAcuscan Executive Summary 3995 Words   |  4 PagesEXECUTIVE SUMMARY TO: Cliff O’Connor, CEO AcuScan, Inc. FROM: VP of Organizational Development SUBJECT: Observations and Recommendations for Optimization Project DATE: June 30, 2008 Purpose and Scope of Document The purpose of this document is to provide a basic overview of the current status surrounding the AcuScan Optimization Project. This document will provide a brief background and summary of the current situation, and then provide key points relating to the underlying issues. ThisRead MoreEssay about Ab299 Final Project1533 Words   |  7 Pages07/09/2011 Executive Summary This section provides an overview of your findings. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Leadership Development Managing People and Relationships

Question: Discuss about theLeadership Developmentfor Managing People and Relationships. Answer: Leading and Managing People and Relationships for Performance The second weeks prime objective on leadership development is their traits, motives and characteristics through which the leaders accomplish their business goals. I have learned that effective cognitive factors and emotional intelligence Cummings and Worley (2014) also depicts that the traits and characteristics of a leader can be identified from the approach of their interaction, the process through which they gather information regarding their subordinates problem and their approach for making decision for the betterment of the organization. Burke and Noumair (2015) furthermore stated that the personality of a leader can be identified by the approach how they handle their self-confidence and locus of control. The difficulty that I faced is to find a balance between these two factors. The major reason for the difficulty is that for business being a task-oriented leader is crucial but on the other hand valuing every subordinate for their effort and maintaining trustworthiness with th em also ensures the success of the organization. Clarke (2013) highlights that leadership motive comprise of four aspects- power motive, drive and achievement motive, tenacity and string working ethics. I have learned from this week that positive implications of control resources, determination to exert the power and maintaining the personalised power motive along with the socialised power motive makes a person an efficient leader and this motive of attaining this achievement can be defines by McClelland's Three Needs Theory. Burke and Noumair (2015) defines that in former case a leader only emphasizes on status, power and money while in the latter case the leader values to support their working personnel and help them to overcome their adversities. Leadership Behaviours, Attitudes and Styles The major focus of this week is on leadership behaviour of the leader and their style through which they are attaining destined business objectives. I have learned that in different era different leadership theory are being followed by the leaders and in recent times also leaders of an organization intends to follow an effective leadership styles. Great Man theory is believed as the most effective leadership traits and people believed that leaders are born but contingency theory has replaced this belief in current times (Northouse 2012). According to this theory, there is not a particular method for leadership and is dependent on factors like business environment and followers need (Chemers 2014). I have also learned about other leadership styles that is participative, autocratic and entrepreneurial leadership style. Cummings and Worley (2014) stated that in participative leadership traits, the leader must participate with their subordinates and asked for their feedback on every deci sion making but Allio (2012) argues by depicting that developing an autocratic leadership trait is also important during the crucial time as it helps the subordinates to follow a direction. However, in recent times, leaders are less likely to adopt tried-and-tested way for doing business and emphasize ore on entrepreneurial leadership styles. In this scenario, the leaders also value the feedback that they received from their subordinates so that improvements can be made on their business approach. Leaders used a 360-degree feedback chart for such response and assess whether their leadership traits are effective enough to satisfy the business and customers needs (Tee and Ahmed 2014). Charismatic and Transformational Leadership Concept of the transformational leadership is the main topic of week-4. Braun et al. (2013) stated that in transformational leadership, the leaders and their followers motivate each other to raise their levels of morality. Avolio and Yammarino (2013) moreover depicts that a person can become a transformational leader by establishing an inspiring vision of the future, accomplishing those vision and formulating a trust-based relationshipswith the subordinates. Garca-Morales et al. (2012) moreover highlights that charismatic leadership can be incorporated with the transformation leadership styles but Allio (2012) argues by stating that a strict charismatic leader often lack the other characteristics of leadership. I have learned the difference between these two leadership style that a charismatic leaders inspire people while a transformation leader always remain optimist and believes in changing organizational approaches by admiring every ones effort. Tourish (2013) defines that both of these leader believes in sharing their visions, goals, and directives and communicate frequently with group members. Moreover, during this week I have faced difficulty in attaining concept of two-way communication. However, the theory defined by Avolio and Yammarino (2013) that resembles that communication in which both parties involve in transmitting information effectively is two-way communication. Thus, according to me, enhancement in two-way communication also ensures in effective interpersonal relationships between the follower and the leader. Lastly, in this session I have learned about breakthrough leadership trait. In this leadership trait, midlevel managers can transform into more effectiveleaders Braun et al. (2013) by respecting others, ability to listen and act accordingly along with the regular enhancement of the competencies. Contingency and Situational Leadership In context of leadership development, week 5 emphasize on the contingency and situational leadership. Gregoire and Arendt (2014) highlights that a person cannot be a leader by birth; however, they have to learn success factors that can improve their business performance. During this session, I have learned about contingency model developed by Fred E. Fiedler that classifies the leadership style into two parts- task-motivated and relationship-motivated leadership styles (Chemers 2014). This business expert also believes that one individual is capable of more than one leadership style and hence following only one leadership style is difficult to maintain. (McCleskey 2014) depicts that adjusting leadership style according to the situation is followed by leaders in contemporary organization. Week 4s session also highlighted the concept of path-goal theory. According to this theory, leader clears away the obstacles and improves performance, offer appropriate rewards and highlights some ot her leadership styles- supportive leadership, participative leadership, directive leadership and achievement-oriented leadership style (Gregoire and Arendt 2014). I have also learned about decision-making styles of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago model (See Appendix, Figure 1). Conferring to this model, Allio (2012) depicts that in most of the cases the first two styles are resembles as autocratic leadership while the last three are consultative. However, Bedford and Gehlert (2013) argues that the first two styles and the second two styles represents the autocratic and consultative leadership styles respectively while the fifth style is resembled as group-directed leadership style. Moreover, I have also learned about the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model which is easy to apply and it represents a consensus of thinking about leadership behaviour. This model represents four factors- participative style for high task and low relationship, selling style for high task and high relation ship, delegating style of low task and low relationships and telling style for high task and low relationship (Gregoire and Arendt 2014). Image 1: Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership model (Source: Gregoire and Arendt 2014) Cognitive Resource Theory Learning about the concept of Cognitive Resource Theory and perception of Henry Mintzberg are the major components of week 6s session. Braun et al. (2013) states that Henry Mintzbergs theory can be categorised into three aspects- interpersonal, information process and decision making ability of the leaders. Bratton and Gold (2012) moreover states that interpersonal aspects highlight three roles- figurehead, leader and liaison, the information processing highlights areas of monitor, disseminator and spokesperson while the decisional process emphasizes on roles for entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. I have also learned about the cognitive resource theory that focuses on intelligence, experience and the approach to motivate the subordinates. In terms of cognitive resource theory, Haycock (2012) portrays on some assumptions of this theory. The first assumption is forlow-stress situations and is suitable for the leaders, who desire to utilize their cogni tive power to achieve the business goals (Hatch and Cunliffe 2013). Chemers (2014) states that the second assumption highlights the high-stress situations for the leaders experienced enough to produce more quality results that others while the next assumption considered that directive leaders have better performance when they utilize their intelligence in low stress situation. However, Tourish (2013) highlights that cognitive model is essential as it represents how intelligence, experience, and stress can influence the leaders performance on attaining business objectives. Power, Politics and Leadership The prime concern of week seventh topic is on power, politics and leadership. I have learned that a person attain four power- legitimate power, reward power, coercive power and information power that can be attained by their experience in workplace. The legitimate power represents the lawful right to make a decision while the reward power resembles the authority to give employees rewards (Burnes and By 2012). Northouse (2012) depict that leader possess coercive power are able to punish their subordinates on their poor performance and information power provides the leader a formal control over the information people. However Caldwell (2012) depicts that referent power, expert power and prestige power are already possessed in the person. Moreover, according to me the leaders must have a blend of all these powers so that more productivity can be attained. I believe that subordinates should provide with motivation factors like financial and non-financial benefits like incentive on their extraordinary performances and allowance on relocations. Clarke (2013) suggests that leader should analyse the gaps in their subordinates performance and take appropriate steps for enhancing their adversities rather than make them punishable. Motivation can also be ensured by allowing all the working personnel in the decision making process so that they can feel like an important asset to the organization. I have also learned that effective politics in organization can be ensured by assessing whether every personnel is allowed to present their own agendas and managers are proper interacts with the subordinates. Employees have to understand the psyche of the colleagues and manager, polite to everyone and honest towards the organization in order to survive the office politics (Miner 2015). Influence Tactics of Leaders The leadership quality of the leaders is not only important in organising a business but the approach through which they influence their followers also matters in achieving the organizational goals (Giltinane 2013). Thus, from the session of week 8, I have learned about the relationship between the power and influence. Miner (2015) states that power is coercive while influence is non-coercive in nature as power serve physical sanctions; while Influence is psychological, persuasive and voluntary. I also believed that Power is based on fear of pain or deprivation and it shows that dissimilarities in personnels perception; while on the other hand, influencing other represents similarities of values or ideological commonness. In this session also it is shown that a leader, who desires to enhance their influential tactics, emphasis on the enhancement of their rational persuasion, personal magnetism with others, formulation of coalitions, working for team strengths and others. I have faced difficulty in maintaining an inspiring personality with charm and charismatic together but I have also learned that this problem can be overcome by discussing with the business adversities with the subordinates politely and in a friendly manner. Selecting appropriate alliances to form coalitions for attaining business goals is also important for establishing an extraordinary leadership style (Braun et al. 2013). According to me, this trait is difficult to achieve but can be overcome with experience. Review of Teamwork and Motivation Qian et al. (2012) stated that how an organization performs relies on the working ability of all the working personnel and thus there performance has to be evaluated and monitored regularly. Caldwell (2012) suggests that some uses the concept of taking face to face feedback from the employees regarding their problems. However, Gregoire and Arendt (2014) argues that conducting survey are the most effective way to take feedback as most of the employee do not reveal their actual in front of anyone. I also believe that this feedback session also ensures the team development and in our session 9, we have learned about the Tuckmans model. This model comprises of four stages- forming, storming, norming and performing. In the stage of forming, Cummings and Worley (2014) highlight that the team learns about the opportunities and challenges to tackle the tasks. Moreover, the stage two and three represents the sharing of perception on a particular decision in order to avoid internal conflicts a nd the resolution of disagreements if conflicts occur for effective business culture respectively (Northouse 2012). I have also learned that in the fourth stage of performing, group members focus on achieving common goals and in this way synergy can be attained. (Giltinane 2013) portrays that in this way members job satisfaction is enhanced though this procedure is time consuming and job pressure on working personnel is there as they have to main the emotional and professional excellence in the workplace. Reference List Allio, R.J., 2012. Leaders and leadershipmany theories, but what advice is reliable?. Strategy Leadership, 41(1), pp.4-14. Avolio, B.J. and Yammarino, F.J. eds., 2013. Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. 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